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It encompasses related harmful practices such as wife inheritance, bride kidnapping, girl-child compensation, and marriage as dispute settlement or debt payment, which are practiced in Tanzania. Summary When Matilda H. Although Matilda had passed her exams and had been admitted to secondary school, her father told her: You have to get married because this man has already paid dowry for you.
I did not know my husband before. I had nothing to do. I had no way out but to allow to get married. When I would get sick, he would not even have money to take me to the hospital. A study by the United Nations Population Fund UNFPA estimated that 37 percent of Tanzanian women aged years were first married or in union before the age of 18, between Human Rights Watch documented cases where girls as young as seven were married.
Child marriage is deeply embedded in Tanzanian society. In many cultures in Tanzania, girls are generally considered ready for marriage when they reach puberty and marriage is viewed as a way to protect them from pre-marital sex and pregnancy that undermine family honor and may decrease the amount of dowry a family may receive.
Cultural practices such as female genital mutilation FGM also contribute to child marriage in some communities. Among the Maasai and Gogo ethnic groups, where Human Rights Watch conducted some of its research for this report, FGM is closely related to child marriage and is done primarily as a rite of passage to prepare girls, aged years, for marriage.
Many Tanzanians regard child marriage as way of securing financial security for themselves and their daughters. Some girls see marriage as a way out of poverty, violence, or neglect.
Child labor in Tanzania may also be associated with a significant increase in marriage at an earlier age, as girls who face abuse and exploitation in their workplaces see marriage as a way to escape their suffering. Human Rights Watch investigated the factors contributing to child marriage, the severe harms and rights abuses associated with it, and the risks girls face when they resist marriage.
We also examined the gaps in the child protection system, the lack of protection for victims of child marriage, and the many obstacles they face in attempting to obtain redress, as well as shortcomings in existing laws and plans to combat child marriage.
By permitting child marriage, the government becomes responsible for the serious harms suffered by girls and women, thus violating many human rights recognized under international law.
Girls married as children are usually unable to continue with their schooling and consequently have limited wage-earning prospects due to their lack of education.
Girls may experience domestic violence and marital rape, and receive little or no support during their marriages or when they leave.
They are forced into adulthood before they are physically and emotionally mature and they struggle with the physical and emotional health effects of becoming pregnant too young. These harmful effects take the heaviest toll on the youngest brides. Girls told Human Rights Watch that their parents or guardians withdrew them from school to marry, and they found it difficult to return to school after marriage.
Girls who became pregnant or married were frequently expelled. Tanzanian schools routinely conduct mandatory pregnancy tests of girls, a serious infringement of their rights to privacy, equality, and autonomy.
Girls Human Rights Watch interviewed who rejected or tried to resist marriage were assaulted, verbally abused, or evicted from their homes by their families.
Others, who were unable to escape marriage, described how their husbands beat and raped them and did not allow them to make any decisions in their homes.
A large number also said their husbands abandoned them and left them to care for children without any financial support. Many said they also experienced violence and abuse at the hands of their in-laws.
Many girls also told Human Rights Watch how they felt lonely and isolated, confined to their homes by domestic and child-rearing duties or because their husbands and in-laws restricted their movements. Many girls interviewed by Human Rights Watch said they were unhappy in their marriages and regretted having married early.
Some said they had contemplated suicide. Health workers described the negative reproductive consequences for girls and their children when girls give birth, including maternal death, obstetric fistula, premature delivery, malnutrition, and anemia.
The Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act, adopted incriminalizes rape, sexual exploitation of children, and FGM, and sets the age of sexual consent at 18 years. In addition, in June the cabinet passed the Education and Training Policy that explicitly allows the admission of girls to school after they have given birth.
The government has developed national plans to combat violence against women and children. In Octoberthe Tanzanian Constituent Assembly adopted the final draft of the proposed new constitution that includes a provision defining a child as every person below the age of The final draft, however, fails to explicitly set a uniform minimum marriage age of 18 for both boys and girls.
The Marriage Act of sets the marriage age at 18 years for boys, but at 15 for girls with parental consent. Existing laws are contradictory and sometimes vague, failing to consistently define who is a child.The workforce is changing as businesses become global and technology erodes geographical and physical torosgazete.com organizations are critical to enabling this transition and can utilize next-generation tools and strategies to provide world-class support regardless of location, platform or device.
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In The Gambia the last Situation Analysis (SitAn) was conducted in and since that time, much of the issues and indicators on these issues regarding the rights of children and women have changed. Child protection issues centered around child abuse, drug use and sexual exploitation.
ensuring that daily caloric and nutritional needs. Child marriage. Millions of children worldwide experience the worst kinds of rights violations. Millions more children, not yet victims, are inadequately protected against them. UNICEF uses the term ‘child protection’ to refer to prevention and response to violence, exploitation and abuse of children in all contexts.